DON'T: Exaggerate. Get help with all aspects of your assignment, from research to writing. DO: Provide context and explain why people should care. How to write the Discussion section of a scientific research paper. David Evans and Paul Gruba (2002, p.112) remind us that our minds continue to work on problems when we aren't thinking about them consciously. The effects of the major operating variables on the performance of the pilot filters are explained, and various implications for design are discussed. Rather, it's the time to pull back and take a fresh look at your work. The discussion section is a very important part of your dissertation or research paper. It is the last part of your paper, in which you summarize your findings in light of the current literature. A claim like this, which implies that the statement is true in every case, cannot be supported with evidence. Use these groups and headings to make a plan of the points you want to make in your discussion. These include stating your interpretations, declaring your opinions, explaining the effects of your findings, and making suggestions and predictions for future research. The presentation of results from experimental studies will be different again. In this Chapter, all the experimental results from the phenomenological experiments outlined in Section 5.2 are presented and examined in detail. Sage Publications. the research methods and theoretical framework that have been outlined earlier in the thesis. This is done within a research tradition where existing knowledge is always being modified in the light of new results. or b) from the data, by showing its limitations: Some studies indicate that reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. That includes avoiding language that implies causality when your study can only make relational conclusions. Doing Qualitative Research: A Practical Handbook (2nd ed.). Comments on figures and tables (data commentary) usually have the following elements: Instructions: Click on the highlighted data elements in the example below. Do the questions need refining? In your discussion you must draw together your research question and your own research results. Use a single sentence for each item. 1. Reducing fat intake may lower the risk of heart disease. How I do it now is that I have a lot of different things happening at once. For others, the data already exists (in the form of archival documents or literary texts, for example), and the work of interpreting it begins much earlier in the research process.Whatever kind of research you are doing, there comes a moment when your head is full of ideas that have emerged from your analysis. In the discussion section, you can provide interpretations based on your observations. In all cases, though, the presentation should have a logical organisation that reflects: You are not simply describing the data. Step 4: Write your findings section in a factual and objective manner.The goal is to communicate information – in some cases a great deal of complex information – as clearly, accurately and precisely as possible, so well-constructed sentences that maintain a simple structure will be far more effective than convoluted phrasing and expressions. Along with noting your work's limitations, it's helpful to also suggest follow-up studies. 40-42. In a traditional doctoral thesis, this will consist of a number of chapters where you present the data that forms the basis of your investigation, shaped by the way you have thought about it. As well as giving your own interpretations, make sure to relate your results back to the scholarly work that you surveyed in the literature review. Discussion Chapter: Main Goals and Writing Approaches. You will definitely find it helpful. The discussion should show how your findings fit with existing knowledge, what new insights they contribute, and what consequences they have for theory or practice. Make reference to similarities or differences in approach or findings. The discussion should indicate whether \the results met the objectives and include the reasons for it. When to Write Dissertation Findings Chapter. "If your study was not a true experiment, replace verbs that imply causation with words and phrases such as 'correlated with,' 'was associated with' and 'related to,'" write John Cone, PhD, and Sharon Foster, PhD, in a forthcoming revision of "Dissertations and Theses from Start to Finish" (APA, 2006). Let’s accept this: Writing a paper is daunting, and sometimes the most difficult and thought-provoking part is writing the ‘discussion’ section. Do your findings disprove your hypothesis? Limit your discussion to a handful of the most important points, as Sackett did on the advice of his adviser. The first step is to clarify for yourself what you know now, as a result of your research. The purpose of a … The reporting of qualitative data is much less bound by convention than that of quantitative data. Composing Qualitative Research. Structure is therefore very important. You can read more about reporting qualitative results in the next section, Reporting conventions. Be clear and concise – focus on argument that helps to answer your research question or supports the hypothesis; avoid discussing distracting issues. (At this point, don't worry about whether they relate to your aims or research questions.). The next big step is to write the discussion. Thesis Writing: 9 Tips on How to Write the Results and Discussion Regoniel, Patrick May 25, 2015 Education , Research 3 Comments Writing the results and discussion section could be one of the difficulties that you encounter when writing your first research manuscript. University of Michigan Press, We acknowledge and pay respects to the Elders and Traditional Owners of the land on which our four Australian campuses stand. ", Roediger agrees: "Conclude the general discussion with a strong paragraph stating the main point or points again, in somewhat different terms-if possible-than used before.". Starting with limitations instead of implications. Copyright © 2020 Monash University. Indeed, every discussion should include a "humility" section that addresses the study's limitations, write Cone and Foster. Why and how? Indicate whether the hypothesis is supported or not. The discussion section therefore needs to review your findings in the context of the literature and the existing knowledge about the subject. The key words are ‘analysis’ and ‘results’ which implies that you … When he defended his master's thesis, his committee told him his conclusions went too far out on a limb. "Limitations should be noted, but after you've discussed your positive results.". Evans and Gruba suggest you try these techniques: 1. It is what all of your hard-work of writing the hypothesis, collecting and designing the data, conducting the statistical analysis of graphs and preparing the summary sums up to. The discussion of findings is often considered one of the most important part of thesis project/research work in the sense that, this is where the researcher of a project topic presents the underlying findings of his research. In other words, you tell your readers the story that has emerged from your findings. In this section, your findings should be the focus, rather than those of other researchers. These themes were: the complexity and challenges of working with families and the professional satisfaction and challenges of program planning for children in preschool or childcare. Use our assignment structures and samples to find out how your peers approach their work, and what lecturers expect of you. For example, a thesis in oral history and one in marketing may both use interview data that has been collected and analysed in similar ways, but the way the results of this analysis are presented will be very different because the questions they are trying to answer are different. For more detailed guidance, we have an excellent handbook titled Write a convincing discussion section – The key to journal acceptance. By exploring those kinds of implications, students address what Scholl considers the most important-and often overlooked-purpose of the discussion: to directly explain why others should care about your findings. After that, the organisation will vary according to the kind of research being reported. Therefore it is important for you to investigate the conventions of your own discipline, by looking at journal articles and theses. knowledge you are sure of because you have reliable evidence for it, other knowledge you think is only within the realms of possibility. Every thesis writer has to present and discuss the results of their inquiry. Now read over what you've written. Ask yourself these questions: 1. Literature reviews play an important role in the discussion section of a manuscript. And while the discussion should put your research into context and tell a story, say experts, it should not overstate your conclusions. In these pages we consider these two activities separately, while recognising that in many kinds of thesis they will be integrated. seem to provide evidence that Angela is growing professionally for two reasons. Yet, arguably the most difficult part of writing your dissertation awaits: your discussion, the place where you sew up the various threads of your research into a cohesive narrative. It is also one of the most difficult parts to write, and sometimes the longest. In a thesis including publication, it will be the central section of an article. 3. More detail can be provided in an appendix. "The moral here is to try to find a balance where you set a tone that indeed celebrates interesting findings without too many leaps, while at the same time reporting limitations without being unnecessarily negative," says David. Failing to differentiate between strong and weak results as you make conclusions about them. The majority of studies indicate that for this age group, reducing fat intake contributes to lowering the risk of heart disease. Information for Indigenous Australians. Include what you need to support the points you need to make. Indicate the degree of probability (note how the claim progressively weakens): Reducing fat intake lowers the risk of heart disease. If so, what do they add to it? Day, R. A. "You can't and shouldn't rely on others to intuitively appreciate the beauty and importance of your work," he says. A component of summary of the findings is to provide a discussion for each of the findings, using anchor verbiage that justifies rather than distorts the intent of the findings. Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. B. Write down all the things you know now that you didn't know when you started the research.