The end of the First Punic War saw the beginning of the Roman expansion beyond the Italian peninsula. Prior to the Punic Wars, Carthage controlled islands in the Mediterranean Sea, including most of Sicily making it able to control trade throughout the Med. The long-term economic effect of the Punic Wars on Rome was: The conquests brought great power and wealth to the Romans. Their land was generally confiscated and many inhabitants were forced to pay a heavy tribute, especially those who had thrown their support behind the Carthaginians in the First Punic War. Discuss the problems in the Roman Empire after the Punic Wars. The Punic Wars provided Rome with the training, the navy, and the wealth to expand from a small city to an empire which would rule the known world. Sea. A result of the first Punic War and the Romans was the decisive naval victory against the Carthaginians at the Aegate Islands. The first Punic War ended with Carthage losing half of their navy, which they totally relied on. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. Another impact to Rome was due to unfavorable conditions in Italy and Sicily and the loss of so many men from agricultural occupations, Rome experienced a period of inflation and the possibility of a grain famine. These three wars took place between 264 and 146 B.C. They fought for the control of Sicily. No plagiarism, guaranteed! It is a debatable point whether his attack contravened the new treaty. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1st Jan 1970 The Punic Wars were some of the biggest wars of the Hellenistic period. What problems did Rome encounter governing and managing the new territories acquired after the Punic Wars? The whole island with the exception of the independent Syracuse was governed by a praetor sent from Rome. Correct answers: 2 question: What effect did the Punic Wars have on Rome's military development? A Roman war galley with infantry on deck; in the Vatican Museums. There were three Punic Wars that spanned from 264 to 146 B.C. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. The Punic Wars 973 Words | 4 Pages. The Punic Wars were a struggle for domination of the Western Mediterranean between Carthage and Rome. This victory, by giving the Romans undisputed command of the sea, rendered certain the ultimate fall of the Punic strongholds in Sicily. The years 264 to 146 BC, would transform Rome from a young Republic to a powerful Empire. The First Punic War broke out in Sicily in 264 BC as a result of Rome's expansionary attitude combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to the island. You can view samples of our professional work here. Rome not only survived the period during the Punic Wars, they conquered and prospered. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. Embark upon a historical journey of warfare in this quiz. Some changes that occurred included a shift in political influence and wealth to the senatorial class, peasant community dynamics were changing with many moving to the cities, while work and food became scarcer. How did these policies affect the people living in the conquered territories? From this episode it became clear that Rome intended to use the victory to the utmost.  They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was … At some point also Rome entered into relations with Saguntum (Sagunto), a town on the east coast, south of the Ebro. At the same time, the Carthaginians, who felt no less severely the financial strain of the prolonged struggle, reduced their forces and made no attempt to deliver a counterattack. The Senate gained increased prestige, greater wealth, and more influence in Roman government. The wars, and particularly the second Punic war, forged the underlying idea of what it really meant to be Roman. While this was the Romans’ only naval defeat in the war, their fleet had suffered a series of grievous losses by storm, and now it was so reduced that the attack upon Sicily had to be suspended. The system of alliances, treaties, protectorates and provinces forged the basis of a highly successful empire. Rome defeated Carthage in the three Punic Wars. Answer: A result of the first Punic War and the Romans was the decisive naval victory against the Carthaginians at the Aegate Islands. 5. The Punic Wars (264-146 BCE) marked the beginning of Rome as a major political power. This system allowed Rome to obtain important grain from Sicily as well as profits from the tributes and natural resources they obtained. The origin of these conflicts is to be found in the position which Rome acquired, about 275 bce, as leader and protector of all Italy. The Punic Wars had a number of important impacts to the Roman society and politics. After one campaign they were ready to sue for peace, but the terms which the Roman commander Marcus Atilius Regulus offered were intolerably harsh. Punic Wars, also called Carthaginian Wars, (264–146 bce), a series of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire, resulting in the destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean… This was due to the way in which Rome conducted its peace arrangements with its defeated states and the strength of its republican institutions. In 219 Hannibal laid siege to Saguntum and carried the town in spite of a stubborn defense. Learn about Hannibal's campaign against Rome, beginning with his attack on Saguntum. In 263 the Romans advanced with a considerable force into Hieron’s territory and induced him to seek peace and alliance with them. With the gain of Spain and the Iberian Peninsula, Rome prospered greatly by being known as the region for its thriving export trade and rich resource base. Before the Second Punic War slaves were employed on a relatively small scale. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. Punic Wars The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC, and were probably the largest wars yet of the ancient world. The Carthaginians hastily collected a relief force, but in a battle fought off the Aegates Insulae (Egadi Islands), west of Drepana, their fleet was caught at a disadvantage and mostly sunk or captured (March 10, 241). The most prominent figure of the Punic war s was General Hannibal of Pheonician Carhtage. Eryx (modern Erice) (244–242) in western Sicily, by which he effectually screened Lilybaeum from any attempt on it by the Roman land army. The Carthaginians accordingly opened negotiations and consented to a peace by which they ceded Sicily and the Lipari (Eolie) Islands to Rome and paid an indemnity of 3,200 talents. He sought to compensate for the loss of Sicily by acquiring a dominion in Spain where Carthage might gain new wealth and form a fresh base of operations against Rome. In light of this idea, Rome manipulated its post war dominance in order to give as well as take. In the Second Punic War, Hannibal marched his army up and around the Iberian … *You can also browse our support articles here >. However, the riches that conquest brought led to a growing gap between rich and poor, corruption, and economic turmoil. To avoid complete humiliation Carthage had no resource but to humiliate its adversary. The Romans introduced a new system in Sicily, where the people were made neither allies nor citizens, but instead subjects. Carthage, on the other hand, had long been anxious to conquer Sicily and so to complete the chain of island posts by which it controlled the western Mediterranean. after taking control of the western Mediterranean after their final victory, where else did Rome take control … The long lasting result of this war is the destruction of the Carthage itself. Expert Answer . The attendant new obligation to safeguard the peninsula against foreign interference made it necessary not to allow the neighbouring island of Sicily to fall into the hands of a strong and expansive power. 5. 4. Carthage was reduced to a mere client state of Rome and its navy was reduced to just ten ships and they were forbidden from raising an army without the permission of Rome. Invested with an unrestricted foreign command, he spent the rest of his life in founding a Spanish empire (237–228). Ask your question. In 255, under Xanthippus’ command, they offered battle to Regulus, who had taken up position with an inadequate force near Tunis, outmaneuvered him, and destroyed the bulk of his army. In the last Punic War, Rome destroyed Carthage. The proximate cause of the first outbreak was a crisis in the city of Messana (Messina), commanding the straits between Italy and Sicily. The only noteworthy feature of the ensuing campaigns is the skillful guerrilla war waged by a new Carthaginian commander, Hamilcar Barca, from his strong positions on Mt. The Roman economy was stimulated by the increase in profits as a result of its new prosperous land. During these wars, it is likely that the colonizing expeditions of the Carthaginians were supported by many emigrants from the Phoenician homeland. The name Punic comes from the word Carthaginian in Latin. What problems did Rome encounter governing and managing the new territories acquired after the Punic Wars? In 260 the Romans built their first large fleet of standard battleships. By this arrangement Sicily became known as a province which became a term for any conquered territory outside mainland Italy. The wars against Carthage changed Rome. The Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage (known today as the suburb of Tunis, Tunisia) and the ancient center of the Carthaginian Empire are indicative of this lucrative trade based on the acquisition of wealth following the Minoan model. To the remonstrances of Carthage the Romans replied with a direct declaration of war, and only withheld their attack upon the formal cession of Sardinia and Corsica and the payment of a further indemnity. (4 points) Group of answer choices A. Rome's navy no longer had enough ships to control the Mediterranean Sea. 2. The besiegers met with a gallant resistance and in 249 were compelled to withdraw by the loss of their fleet in a surprise attack upon Drepanum, in which the admiral Publius Claudius Pulcher was repulsed with a loss of 93 ships. Reference this. They besieged and captured the Carthaginian base at Agrigentum in 262 but made little impression upon the Carthaginian fortresses in the west of the island and upon the towns of the interior. The wealthy benefited, with their lifestyles becoming more luxurious through the Roman cultural exposure to Greek influence. The Senate had gained in power and prestige relative to the people's assemblies, the Comitias Plebis. By 164 BC, Rome was a very different country then before the Punic Wars that saw immediate and long term effects. Rome then became the dominant power in the Mediterranean. One significant and lasting change to Rome as a result of the Punic Wars was an increase in the use of slaves. From this stemmed a new social climate that emerged after the many years of warfare. Updates? Like the American’s Manifest Destiny in the 1800’s, Rome wanted to unite the world in its civilization, which they believed was the most culture-rich of all the nations. Rome was controlling the main peninsula of Italy while Carthage was controlling the islands and trade of the Mediterranean. These wars, known as the Punic Wars, ended in the complete defeat of Carthage by Rome. His defiant policy was too popular to be disavowed, however. 3. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Certain people are calling for reforms while others remain adamantly opposed to any type of reform or change. This aggression provoked war with Carthage and Syracuse. (Punic Wars, n.d.) Rome began the war with a stronger army for it could call on its Italian allies for extra soldiers. This gave Rome full control of Sicily and Corsica. This left Rome free to land a force on Corsica (259) and expel the Carthaginians but did not suffice to loosen their grasp on Sicily. The temper of the Roman people was soon made manifest during a conflict which broke out between the Carthaginians and their discontented mercenaries. From Spain Rome gained great quantities of silver, copper and iron besides agricultural products and fish. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. A famous line concerning Rome was that it would usually lose the first battle, but always win the last. These three wars took place as a battle between the powerful Phoenician city-state Carthage, and the “dominant power of the Italian peninsula” Rome (Punic 2015). The Punic Wars were made of three major wars. The end of the First Punic War saw the beginning of the Roman expansion beyond the Italian peninsula. Previous question Next question Get more help from Chegg. This gave Rome full control of Sicily and Corsica. A. grain from conquered lands drove gain prices B. grain from conquered lands drove up grain prices C. new strains of grain from conquered lands helped them thrive D. the . tyonnbrunnertyonnbrunner. Local rivals took advantage of this and when Carthage raised an army to defend itself from these incursions, it was destroyed by Rome in the Third Punic War. Roman expansion in Italy from 298 to 201 BCE. The Carthaginians, whose citizen levy was utterly disorganized, could neither keep the field against the invaders nor prevent their subjects from revolting. Before the Second Punic War slaves were employed on a relatively small scale. Rome, on the other hand, had taken a key step towards her domination of the Mediterranean. asked by help plzz on May 1, 2014; World History. However, by the end of the second century, large numbers of slaves were pouring into Rome, either as prisoners of war or purchased abroad by the new wealthy class of Romans who now employed large staffs of domestic servants or invested as slaves as business ventures. Rome considered Carthage a threat to its allies in southern Italy and to the supply of grain in the island of Sicily. Hannibal, engraving by John Chapman, 1800. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. In 251 or 250 the Roman general Lucius Caecilius Metellus at last brought about a pitched battle near Panormus in which the enemy’s force was effectively crippled. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? Accordingly they equipped a new army in which, by the advice of a Greek captain of mercenaries named Xanthippus, cavalry and elephants formed the strongest arm. Some changes that occurred included a shift in political influence and wealth to the senatorial class, peasant community dynamics were changing with many moving to the cities, while work and food became scarcer. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. At first the Rome and Carthage were at peace through a series of trading and treaties. what effect did Punic wars have on small roman farmers? How did the Punic Wars effect the Roman Army? The two powers in these wars were Rome and Carthage. their victory in the Punic Wars. The Punic Wars had a number of important impacts to the Roman society and politics. Omissions? Punic Wars were three major military confrontations between the two great empires of the Ancient World, Rome and Carthage. How did these policies affect the people living in the conquered territories? Operations began with a joint attack upon Messana, which the Romans easily repelled. After the Second Punic War, Rome established itself as the most powerful nation in the Mediterranean. Rome benefited greatly from the acquisition of Sicily. The Romans were able to find another source of grain, from Egypt, at three times the normal price. Ercte (247–244) and Mt. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146 BC fought by the states of Rome and Carthage. Hannibal was a military genius, who had greatly expanded the Punic Empire in Iberia and invaded Italy after traversing the Alps. The Romans certainly took this view and demanded Hannibal’s surrender. Also, it depends on which punic war you are speaking of. These wars involved the Romans and Carthaginians. As a result of the Second Punic War, Rome gained control of all Carthaginian territory within Spain. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). At the time, they were probably the largest wars that had ever taken place, much like today's World Wars. The Romans now directed their efforts once more against Sicily. You may have heard of D-Day, the Battle of Hastings, and Waterloo, but do you know their historical significance? The Romans emerged from the Punic wars with the widespread understanding that ultimate authority over the military lay with the Senate, that it was the Senate's job to know, advise and guide, and the Senate's job to decide the question of war or peace and other foreign … How did the punic wars affect the romans? 2 See answers DRKSihota DRKSihota Answer: B. Rome's Population fell after famine and a plague. Confrontations took place between a commercial empire (Carthage) and an expanding one (Rome). The last war was kind of a punishment for Carthage from Rome. … The Roman army grew in size and became dominant in the Mediterranean region. These conquests aroused the suspicions of Rome, which in a treaty with Hasdrubal confined the Carthaginians to the south of the Ebro. All work is written to order. Sicily would become very important to Rome as a source of grain. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! C. Rome limited its soldiers to six months of service each year. During the Punic War era, the extent of Roman Imperialism was founded on the basis of making the world as one. The series of wars that Rome fought with Carthage were called the Punic Wars. The Carthaginian council upheld Hannibal’s action and drew upon itself a declaration of war. The Second Punic War (218-201 BC), often known as Hannibal’s War was the greatest challenge that Rome ever faced. Rome emerged as the pre-eminent power in the Mediterranean and Carthage lay in ruin for over one hundred years until it was finally re-built following the death of Julius Caesar. 3. The Romans, after a brutal struggle, emerged victoriously and gained possession of the island. 2. Rome and Carthage came into conflict in the First Punic War of 264-241 BCE. Remember that Hannibal’s strategy was to drive a wedge between Rome … The pressures that Rome faced during the Second Punic War resulted in significant changes to the Roman political system. His work was continued by his son-in-law Hasdrubal and his son Hannibal, who was placed at the head of the army in 221. One significant and lasting change to Rome as a result of the Punic Wars was an increase in the use of slaves. VAT Registration No: 842417633. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! Corrections? This victory was followed by an investment of the chief Punic base at Lilybaeum (Marsala), together with Drepanum (Trapani), by land and sea. Significantly, Syracuse was granted nominal independence as an ally and it was not incorporated into the Roman province of Sicily until the Second Punic War. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. A gross breach of the treaty was perpetrated when a Roman force was sent to occupy Sardinia, whose insurgent garrison had offered to surrender the island (238). The other answers explain well the geopolitical impact of the wars on Rome and on Europe / the Mediterranean basis as a whole (particularly that of Hu Jinqin). A second Roman fleet, which subsequently reached Africa after defeating the full Carthaginian fleet off Cape Hermaeum (Sharīk Peninsula), withdrew all the remaining troops. The recent complications of foreign and internal strife had indeed so weakened Punic power that the prospect of renewing the war under favourable circumstances seemed remote enough. What were the affects of the Punic Wars on Rome; and how did those affects contribute to the collapse of the Roman Republic? No Comments on rome after the Punic Wars The Punic Wars are over, but Rome now faces a crisis due to internal strife in the aftermath of the wars. Illyricum, on the Adriatic, Macedonia and Greece would all become the target of Roman domination and political whims. The Mamertini, a band of Campanian mercenaries, had forcibly established themselves within the town and were being hard pressed in 264 by Hieron II of Syracuse. A dispute between the cities of Syracuse and … Company Registration No: 4964706. Study for free with our range of university lectures! Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The Mamertini appealed to both Rome and Carthage, and the Carthaginians, arriving first, occupied Messana and effected a reconciliation with Hieron. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. The Roman commander, nevertheless, persisted in throwing troops into the city, and, by seizing the Carthaginian admiral during a parley, induced him to withdraw. At Mylae (Milazzo), off the north Sicilian coast, their admiral Gaius Duilius defeated a Carthaginian squadron of superior maneuvering capacity by grappling and boarding. A large Roman fleet sailed out in 256, repelled the entire Carthaginian fleet off Cape Ecnomus (near modern Licata) and established a fortified camp on African soil at Clypea (Kélibia in Tunisia). However, the scheme of preparing for a fresh conflict found a worthy champion in Hamilcar Barca. The flash point for the wars was the island of Sicily. 4. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! In some cases, Rome's expansion beyond Carthaginian territory grew as a direct correlation to the Punic Wars. The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts fought between the Roman Republic and Carthage, the last one ending in 146 BCE with the defeat of Carthage. what led to the Roman's dominance in the western Mediterranean? There were 3 in total. B. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. I’ll only add a somewhat more social element. By 164 BC, Rome was a very different country then before the Punic Wars that saw immediate and long term effects. Discuss the problems in the Roman Empire after the Punic Wars. Explanation: Still have questions? How did the aftermath of the Punic Wars affect the city of Rome itself? By controlling Sicily, the Romans could use its array of natural resources and minerals to gain profits. The loss of naval supremacy not only deprived the Carthaginians of their predominance in the western Mediterranean but exposed their overseas empire to disintegration under renewed attacks by Rome. Looking for a flexible role? In 254 they captured the important fortress of Panormus (Palermo), but when Carthage threw reinforcements into the island the war again came to a standstill. from 264 BC to 146 BC. The interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (241–218, https://www.britannica.com/event/Punic-Wars, UNRV History - The Punic Wars and Expansion, Punic Wars - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Punic Wars, also called Carthaginian Wars, (264–146 bce), a series of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire, resulting in the destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. EXAMPLES OF ROMAN REPUBLIC POWER Controlled all of the Italian peninsula by 275 B.C Conquered territories owed Rome annual taxes and men for the military when Rome went to war How did the aftermath of the Punic Wars affect the city of Rome itself? History This assured that Rome would be the dominant Italian power. In 242 Rome resumed operations at sea. Rule by Senate was consolidated due to the success with which they conducted the Second Punic War and the economic power they held through the control of huge estates many senators established after the war. By a magnificent effort on the part of private citizens a fleet of 200 warships was equipped and sent out to renew the blockade of Lilybaeum. Explanation: thank you :) Thank you bldq bldq Answer: I thinks it's D Rome gained new soldiers . The western Mediterranean during the Punic Wars.