Their high level of starch is similar to that of wheat and twice as high as the potato. The sweet chestnut is a native of the Mediterranean region and the Romans probably introduced the sweet chestnut to Britain for its nuts (seeds) which are quite edible raw or cooked and can be made into flour or used as a coffee bean substitute. Chestnuts are traditionally roasted in their tough brown husks after removing the spiny cupules in which they grow on the tree, the husks being peeled off and discarded and the hot chestnuts dipped in salt before eating them. The bark is grey-purple and smooth, and develops vertical fissures with age. [7], Leaf infusions are used in respiratory diseases and are a popular remedy for whooping cough. Mature trees can reach up to 35m in height. Chinese chestnuts bloom earlier than American chestnuts. Twigs are purple-brown and buds are red-brown and oval in shape. Delivery is free. The species is widely cultivated for its edible seeds (also called nuts) and for its wood. In Kent there are large woodlands full of Sweet Chestnut, planted for the production of hop poles used in the brewing trade. 79. [24], Three different cultivation systems for the sweet chestnut can be distinguished:[25], The field management is dependent on the cultivation system. [17][18] Contrary to that notion, other scientists found no indication of the Romans spreading C. sativa before the fifth century. Chestnut blight canker on the stem of a sweet chestnut tree. Sweet chestnuts roasting on an open fire at Christmas, whilst in the kitchen preparations are under way in making chestnut stuffing. Look out for: widely spaced teeth around the edges of leaves. The flowers provide an important source of nectar and pollen for bees and other insects, while red squirrels eat the nuts. [12] In the beginning of the Christian era, people probably started to realize the value and versatility of sweet chestnut wood, leading to a slow spread of the cultivation of C. sativa trees, a theory that is supported by pollen data and literary sources, as well as the increased use of sweet chestnut wood as poles and in supporting structures, wood works and pier building between A.D. 100 and 600. [21] In the mid-seventh-century Lombard laws a composition of one solidi is set for felling a chestnut tree (or, also, hazel, pear or apple) belonging to another person (Edictus Rothari, No. Registered office: Kempton Way, Grantham, Lincolnshire, NG31 6LL. You can’t id the tree from a distance by its shape but if you look closely at the bark, buds and shoots and then look for old leaves and old fruit underneath the tree, you can be sure that it is a Sweet Chestnut. Photo about Interesting sweet chestnut tree bark in forest. [39][40] Sweet chestnut is a good source for starch,[41]; chestnuts of all varieties generally contain about the same amount of starch. This Spring and Summer we have been experimenting with some of the uses of the bark from Sweet Chestnut Trees and wish to share some of our findings. A lovely thought, in late summer early autumn the chestnuts ripen to full size,some bursting out of the spiky cases.The chestnuts we buy in shops today are usually imported from France or … Bark Extract: Cardiovascular Activity and Myocyte Protection against. Under forest conditions, it will tolerate moderate shade well. [20] Indeed, no center of sweet chestnut cultivation outside the Italian peninsula in Roman times has been detected. By hand with nets: This technique is less time-consuming and protects the fruits from injuries. Its naturally high concentration of organic acids is a key factor influencing the organoleptic characteristics of fruits and vegetables, namely flavor. [13] The first charcoal remains of sweet chestnut only date from around 850-950 B.C., making it very difficult to infer a precise origin history. The ink disease is named after the black exudates at the base of the trunk. Raw horse chestnut seed, bark, flower, and leaf are UNSAFE and can … However, even after heating sweet chestnuts, antioxidant activity remains relatively high. Epub … The Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa) was probably introduced to Britain by the Romans. The nuts are a valuable food source for many mammals. [6][11] Ink disease is infesting trees mostly in humid soils, with the mycelium invading the root and resulting in wilting of the leaf. The tree is to be distinguished from the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum, to which it is only distantly related. [35][38] The fat content is very low and is dominated for the most part by unsaturated fatty acids. Sweet Chestnut Bark. Chestnut blight has recently arrived in the UK, which causes bark cankers and can lead to dieback and death. Bark - sweet chestnut (C. sativa) Its bark is smooth when young, [22] of a vinous maroon or red-brown color for the American chestnut, [13] grey for the European chestnut. Its year-growth (but not the rest of the tree)[8] is sensitive to late spring and early autumn frosts, and is intolerant of lime. Image of form, branch, figure - 129117383 [54] The wood is of light colour, hard and strong. Flora Europaea: Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of Lepidoptera that feed on chestnut trees, colonisation of the Italian peninsula by the Greeks, "The Chestnut: A Multipurpose Resource for the New Millennium", "Ink disease in chestnuts: impact on the European chestnut", "The Cultivation of Castanea sativa (Mill.) Sep 19th, 2011 by Richard. Oxidative Damage. Furthermore, this characteristic is valuable in cases of celiac diseases[36] as well as reducing coronary heart diseases and cancer rates. Sweet chestnut and specifically the chestnut tree bark are found to be a very effective remedy for Diarrhea. It is native to Southern Europe but has now become common on light non-chalky soils throughout Britain. The water in which you boil the chestnuts along with its shell or bark is rich in Tannins. Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) The bark is smooth and greyish-green when young, becoming … In the northern hemisphere, they appear in late June to July, and by autumn, the female flowers develop into spiny cupules containing 3-7 brownish nuts that are shed during October. Examples can be seen particularly in the London Boroughs of Islington and Camden. The tree requires a mild climate and adequate moisture for good growth and a good nut harvest. [9][10] In North America as well as in Southern Europe Cryphonectria parasitica destroyed most of the chestnut population in the 20th century. Typically a veteran sweet chestnut will be 150-300 years of age and a notable sweet chestnut may be 100-200 years old. Hyd-rolysis of sweet chestnut tannins leads to the formation of two important phenolic acids: gallic and ellagic acid. The sap wood is narrow and generally usable where a waney edge feature … By hand: The sweet chestnuts are harvested by rake or broom, with a harvest speed of 5 to 30 kg every hour depending on the soil relief. List of various diseases cured by Sweet Chestnut. [27] The maximal altitude is strongly dependent on the climate. [4] In cultivation they may even grow as old as 1000 years or more. [55] It is also a good fuel, though not favoured for open fires as it tends to spit. [45], Sweet chestnut is suited for human nutrition. It is used to make furniture, barrels (sometimes used to age balsamic vinegar), and roof beams notably in southern Europe (for example in houses of the Alpujarra, Spain, in southern France and elsewhere). Nevertheless, roasted or boiled chestnuts may still be a solid vitamin C source, since 100 gram still represent about 20% of the recommended daily dietary intake. [12] Today's phylogenetic map of the sweet chestnut, while not fully understood, shows greater genetic similarity between Italian and western Anatolian C. sativa trees compared to eastern Anatolian specimen, reinforcing these findings. [26], The sweet chestnut tree grows well on limestone-free, deeply weathered soil. Note: sweet chestnut should not be confused with horse chestnut (the conker tree) whose wood is white in colour and inferior for joinery purposes. The bark is radially crossed as it ascends the trunk. It can be used for carpentry, joinery and furniture. Height: Broadening with age, the sweet chestnut can reach up to 40 metres in height. However, high sugar amounts seem to have a negative impact on the fiber content. Chestnuts are highly nutritious and therefore helpful during convalescence. The Horse Chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum, which has also been known as Hippocastanum vulgare (Gaertn. bark extract: cardiovascular activity and myocyte protection against oxidative damage Oxid Med Cell Longev. The leaves also contain tannin. All sweet chestnut will be ancient from 400 years onwards, although many will have ancient characteristics from around 300 years. Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) [6], C. sativa is found across the Mediterranean region, from the Caspian Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. in Europe, from its origin to its diffusion on a continental scale", "Genetic structure of Castanea sativa in Turkey: evidence of a hybrid zone", 10.1002/1099-1417(200009)15:6<621::AID-JQS524>3.0.CO;2-L, "Reworking the idea of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Inside, there is an edible, creamy-white part developed from the cotyledon.[5]. Its bark can be recognised from its long diagonal fissures. sativa.[29]. [37] Various composition and health studies have shown its big potential as a food ingredient and functional food. Article by Ursula Stopka. [3] Some selected varieties are smaller and more compact in growth yielding earlier in life with different ripening time: the Marigoule, the Marisol and the Maraval. Bark, sweet chestnut tree. Photo about Interesting sweet chestnut tree bark in forest. Names of Sweet Chestnut in various languages of the world are also given. The fruit contains significant amounts of a wide range of valuable nutrients. They belong to the same family as oaks and beeches. Registered in England No. 1 (1768). Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF … [12], Increasing sweet chestnut pollen appearances in Switzerland, France, Germany and the Iberian peninsula in the first century A.D. suggests the spreading of cultivated sweet chestnut trees by the Romans. Long, yellow catkins of mostly male flowers, with female flowers at the base. It is a species introduced to the UK and widely planted and extensively naturalised , especially on … The buds alternate on young shoots. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Sweet Chestnut. Explore wrightrkuk's photos on Flickr. It grows long catkins, the remains of which stay attached to the husk until they fall off. [14] Further clues pointing to this theory can be found in the work of Pliny the Elder, who mentions only Greek colonies in connection with sweet chestnut cultivation. The leaves are quite glossy and there are about 20 pairs of prominent parallel veins. With biological control, the population of the sweet chestnut is not threatened anymore by the chestnut blight and is regenerating. [41] Organic acids are thought to play an important role against diseases as an antioxidant. Sweet Chestnut bark seating Whilst running the intro to green woodworking course we took the time to peel the bark from the sweet chestnut logs before riving them down, with the aim of using it for weaving, principally for seating the chairs that I will be making this summer. Sweet chestnut timber is similar to oak but is more lightweight and easier to work. Lifespan: 450 years Natural range: Mediterranean and Asia … … Discover our recent challenges and successes and how you can help. The optimal average temperature is between 8 °C and 15 °C[25] and in January the temperature should preferably not be below -1 °C[27] but it may tolerate temperatures as low as -15 °C. Furthermore, a visual sorting is not possible. Flowers and Fruits. ), is an entirely different tree from the Sweet Chestnut, to which it is not even distantly related, and is of much more recent importation to English soil. A tree grown from seed may take 20 years or more before it bears fruits, but a grafted cultivar such as 'Marron de Lyon' or 'Paragon' may start production within five years of being planted. Figure 2 shows, by both MTT (a) and flow cytometry analysis (b), that CSM extract did not exert any toxic effect on cultured primary … What do Chestnuts look Like? GB520 6111 04. A large number of micro-moths feed on the leaves and nuts. [25] Low temperature in autumn can damage the fruit. The flowers of Sourwood can be mistaken for chestnut at a distance. [5] Some cultivars only produce one large seed per cupule, while others produce up to three seeds. Absence of fruit formation leads to die back of the petal. Sweet chestnut has been found to be susceptible to fungal diseases. [6] The oblong-lanceolate, boldly toothed leaves are 16–28 cm (6–11 in) long and 5–9 cm (2–4 in) broad. Woodland Trust (Enterprises) Limited, registered in England (No. Download our free Tree ID app for Android and iPhone to identify the UK's native and non-native trees. Sweet chestnut trees live to an age of 500 to 600 years. The leaves are completely different, with sweet chestnut having single, long, serrated leaves and horse chestnut having hand-shaped leaves with deeply divided lobes or ‘fingers’. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 05:04. Sweet chestnut bark is a superb material to make baskets with being both strong and flexible. Gardeners Dictionary ed. The product is sold as a sweetened paste mixed with vanilla, crème de marrons [fr], sweetened or unsweetened as chestnut purée or purée de marron, and candied chestnuts as marrons glacés. In winter one of the easiest trees to identify is the Sweet Chestnut. There is very little mythology surrounding the sweet chestnut in the UK, probably because it was introduced. 8 no. The twigs are purple-brown and buds are plum, red-brown and oval in shape. Sweet chestnut can be a large tree up to 30 m in height, with a single trunk but is often coppiced to form a shrub of many straight poles. Also, the capsule makes the harvest more complicated and even painful for the worker. Since the beginning of the 20th century, due to depopulation of the countryside and the abandonment of the sweet chestnut as a staple food as well as the spread of chestnut blight and ink disease, C. sativa cultivation has dramatically decreased. in Anatolia, northeastern Greece and southeastern Bulgaria. Ideally located in Fife Leisure Park (just off Junction 3 of the M90), we’re perfect for travellers, families visiting from the city centre, or visitors to the Bowlplex bowling alley and Odeon cinema. The Woodland Trust is a charity registered in England and Wales (No. A non-profit-making company limited by guarantee. Image of foliage, form, texture - 129118645 Types of mushroom in the UK: common identification guide, Foraging for natural Christmas decorations, Top tips for an eco-friendly and sustainable Christmas. It is said to be between 2,000 and 4,000 years old. [12] Carbonised sweet chestnuts were found in the Roman Villa Torre Annunziata, destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. It can live to more than 2,000 years of age in natural conditions, see the poetically-named "hundred-horse chestnut" in eastern Sicily for example. ", "Technological Parameters of Water Curing Affect Postharvest Physiology and Storage of Marrons (Castanea Sativa Mill., Marrone Fiorentino)", An easy way of peeling the pellicle, or pithy skin, "Chemical composition of chestnut cultivars from Spain", "Health benefits of nuts: potential role of antioxidants", European Forest Genetic Resources Programme,, Articles with limited geographic scope from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [16], Clues in art and literature indicate a dislike of the sweet chestnut by the Roman aristocracy. The horse chestnut bears similar looking seeds (conkers) in a similar seed case, which are not palatable to humans. Introduced by the Romans and a roasted winter treat. [10], Another serious pest which is difficult to control is the gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphylus) which was recently introduced in Southern Europe, originating from Asia. The other native trees that bloom late in the year around the same time as American chestnuts are Black Locust and Sourwood. Both cultivars bear fruits with a single large kernel, rather than the usual two to four smaller kernels. In Switzerland, it is often served as Vermicelles. Note the diseased bark is still fairly smooth but has longitudinal cracks. Sweet chestnut is native to southern Europe, western Asia and north Africa. Flowers: Some catkins have male and female flowers on the same stalk. [43] C. sativa is characterized by high moisture content which ranges from 41% to 59 %[44] and a considerable level of starch (≈40 g 100 g−1 dry matter). The flowers of both sexes are borne in 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long, upright catkins, the male flowers in the upper part and female flowers in the lower part. The fruit yield per tree is usually between 30–100 kg, but can get as high as 300 kg. A large number of micro-moths feed on the leaves and nuts. Sweet Chestnut produces nuts in warm summers. In south east England sweet chestnut is coppiced to produce poles. On this two day course led by Nick McMillen; students will be shown how to prepare bark and then to weave a small foraging basket with a steam bent chestnut handle. Castanea sativa, the sweet chestnut, Spanish chestnut or just chestnut, is a species of tree in the family Fagaceae, native to Southern Europe and Asia Minor, and widely cultivated throughout the temperate world. [32] Instead, fructose is mostly responsible for the sweet taste. 1982873. [8], Tannin is found in the following proportions on a 10% moisture basis: bark (6.8%), wood (13.4%), seed husks (10 - 13%). It is thought to have been introduced to the British Isles by the Romans and today can be found commonly throughout the UK in woods and copses, especially in parts of southern England where it is still managed to form large areas of coppice. [7] The sweet chestnut is naturallyself incompatible, meaning that the plant cannot pollinate itself, making cross-pollination necessary. ... Bark. This tree responds very well to coppicing, which is still practised in Britain, and produces a good crop of tannin-rich wood every 12 to 30 years, depending on intended use and local growth rate. [12] Pollen data indicates that the first spreading of C. sativa due to human activity started around 2100-2050 B.C. [8], The ornamental cultivar C. sativa 'Albomarginata'[56] has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit, Media related to Castanea sativa at Wikimedia Commons, The examples and perspective in this article. Most sweet chestnut is consumed in processed form, which has an impact on the nutrient composition. In the past, its characteristic and nutritional components gave sweet chestnut an important role in human nutrition due to its beneficial health effects. Photograph: Ana Pérez-Sierra, Forest Research Chestnut blight canker Signs and symptoms In contrast to a cold storage system, where the fruits are stored at low temperatures in untreated air, the controlled environment method avoids flesh hardening which negatively impacts the processability of the product.[30]. The skin of raw peeled chestnuts can be relatively easily removed by quickly blanching the nuts after scoring them by a cross slit at the tufted end. [19] While the husks of sweet chestnuts, dated to the third or early fourth century, have been identified from the bottom of a Roman well at Great Holts Farm, Boreham, UK; this deposit includes remains of other exotic food plants and provides no evidence that any of them originated locally. The female flowers eventually form a spiky sheath that deters predators from the seed. Those ba… SC038885). How Sweet Chestnut is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Sweet chestnut timber is similar to oak but is more lightweight and easier to work. It is often found in parkland as a specimen tree with a smooth grey bark and long dark green toothed leaves which contrast with the long, yellowish spring catkins. Weird Trees Sweet Chestnut Magical Tree Unique Trees Old Trees Tree Trunks Nature Tree Big Tree Tree Forest. Making a basket from sweet chestnut bark 1 This entry was posted in Bushcraft Skills Woodland Skills on 29/05/2017 by Gary (updated 409 days ago) We’ve recently held our Cordage & Containers course and so took the opportunity to get some photos of the process involved in making a sweet chestnut bark basket. Bark on young trees is a dull silvery purple, with vertical cracks. The Romans ground sweet chestnuts into a flour or coarse meal.Sweet chestnuts are a rich source of vitamins C (the only nut that is) and B, and minerals including magnesium, potassium and iron. The Latin sativa means "cultivated by humans". Bark: Its bark has long diagonal fissures. Young trees can also suffer from squirrel damage. [8], Sweet chestnut has been listed as one of the 38 substances used to prepare Bach flower remedies,[23] a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its supposed effect on health. [42] The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) of C. sativa amounts to 891 kJ (213 kcal). There are three harvesting techniques: The total world chestnut harvest was 1,17 Mio Tons in 2006, but only 151 000 Tons were C. Roast chestnuts are traditionally sold in streets, markets and fairs by street vendors with mobile or static braziers. We want to make sure everyone in the UK has the chance to plant a tree. After pollination by insects, female flowers develop into shiny, red-brown fruits wrapped in a green, spiky case. [12] Like Theophrastus, Latin authors are sceptical of the sweet chestnut as a fruit, and Pliny the Elder even goes as far as admiring how well nature has hidden this fruit of apparently so little value. [25] Harvest time is between middle of September and middle of November. They are used for flour, bread making, a cereal substitute, coffee substitute, a thickener in soups and other cookery uses, as well as for fattening stock. It can be used for carpentry, joinery and furniture. [8] A hair shampoo can be made from infusing leaves and fruit husks. [22], The species is widely distributed throughout Europe, where in 2004 C. sativa was grown on 2.25 million hectares of forest, of which 1.78 million hectares were mainly cultivated for wood and 0.43 million hectares for fruit production. [33][34][35] Sweet chestnut is also appreciated in a gluten-free diet. Credit: Wendy Johnson / Alamy Stock Photo. Researchers at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Ghent in Belgium studied the use of tannins to control Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs (Van Parys A. et al, 2009).The aim of this study was to determine whether a hydrolysable tannin extract** of sweet chestnut wood has an inhibitory … [13] Compared to other crops, the sweet chestnut was probably of relatively minor importance and distributed very heterogeneously throughout these regions. The two major fungal pathogens of the sweet chestnut are the chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) and the ink disease caused by Phytophthora cambivora and Phytophthora cinnamomi. Record all sweet chestnut … [25] The tolerance to wet ground and to clay-rich soils is very low. Autumn leaf identification quiz: can you identify these 10 trees? Credit: Yon Marsh Natural History / Alamy Stock Photo. Phytophthora cambivora caused serious damage in Asia and the US, and it still continues to destroy new plantations in Europe. They can develop vast girths which can reach up to 2m in diameter. Transform your home into a woodland wonderland this Christmas with our easy ideas for festive, foraged home decor. Over 70 species found in the UK, from all the native trees to the common non-natives. [30] The aim of this practice is to limit the main storage problems threatening the sweet chestnut: fungi development and the presence of insect worms. Regarding mineral content, the chestnut provides a good source for Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and K.[39] Its sugar content ranges from 14% to 20% dry weight depending on the cultivar;[45] which is very important, since the sensory appeal of sweet chestnut is correlated with its sugar content.
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