[note: the author formatted this is a way that did not leave space for a page break. In the first part, Paley makes some remarks about the inevitability of inference to design in certain cases. Another common objection is that complexity doesn’t require a designer. “… It commits a false cause fallacy. Watch / universe are not one out of possible combinations, 5. Test. 1-6.] Write. Incompetent Design (Mistake @ 7:40) 5. His argument went something like this. The argument hinges upon the assumed premise that 'like causes resemble like effects'. In the ii. Once again he’s just showing his anti-Christian bias as he puts up another straw man argument directed at Christianity, not Paley’s argument. – so the creator must be omnipotent. A large premise in Humes argument however is that an animal does not need a creator. He then goes on to “formally” attempt to debunk the argument. In crossing a heath, suppose I pitched… One of his concluding statements is rather revealing: “Though the watch maker argument is thoroughly flawed it is nevertheless what I personally consider to be one of the best arguments for a deity that has ever been.”. William Paley The Watch and the Watchmaker [From Natural Theology, or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity Collected from the Appearances of Nature (1802), pp. An overview of William Paley's Watch analogy for students of religious studies and philosophy of religion. from Expelled, No Intelligence Allowed, Documentary by Ben Stein, 2008 Hence, Paley’s argument is referred to as the Teleological Argument – i.e. Creation, i.e.  The Universe consists of: Time The 'watch analogy' from William Paley is an 'a posteriori' (based upon experience, as opposed to the use of logic) argument for the existence of God. The analogy is NOT the argument. In reference to the argument, Voltaire once commented “if a watch confirms the existence of a watchmaker, but the universe fails to demonstrate the presence of a great Architect, then I consent to be labeled a fool.” Today, the analogy is credited with William Paley who outlined the argument in his book Natural Theology(1802). Objection 2. Paley’s watchmaker is the most famous version; it is based on analogy between a watch and the world. It Doesn’t Imply a Designer, it Implies Many (mistake @ 6:19) Even Richard Dawkins, an opponent of the design argument, described himself as a neo-Paleyan in The Blind Watchmaker. It does this by asserting complexity and order can only be caused by a designer” To follow the example in the argument, we know the watch is complex by examination. Basically, this argument says that after seeing a watch, with all its intricate parts, which work together in a precise fashion to keep time, one must deduce that this piece of machinery has a creator, since it is far too complex to have simply come into being by some other means, such as evolution. Michael J. Behe, Darwin’s Black Box – The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution, New York: Free Press, 1996, p. 39 Notice that a creator who was designed, and thus began to exist is incompatible with an eternal creator outside of time. Yet the Video blogger never addresses this real argument, thus the glaring flaw, and the straw man argument. As geneticist Dr. Marciej Giertych puts it:Â, “Darwin assumed that the increase of information comes from natural selection. And we know this from all the genetic operations studies that we have.”[7] video. To follow the example in the argument, we know the watch is complex by examination. The Argument fails because the analogy fails. He further claims “We know for a fact that nature can, does and has produced remarkably complex organisms without a conscious and intelligent behind them.”(4:14) We know no such thing. You’ll see it if he eliminates these inferior options or rationalizations: 1.. We have not seen a watch before or being made, so we really can’t infer it’s designed, 2. 1-6.] But Paley’s concepts of “purposeful design” [5] and “contrivances” [6] anticipate these concepts, and thus his argument is clearly a teleological one – not an argument based on analogy. William Paley's watchmaker analogy is basically a teleological argument. Further it’s incorrect because: The use of a watch is just to help the reader understand why we can indentify that the watch is designed.  The universe is also clearly designed. Let’s look a bit more closely at premise (2) in the above argument for the conclusion that the watch had an intelligent designer. ... Paley’s Watchmaker and Design Argument. However, where my grandma uses zoo animals to teach this, Paley is famous for using a common watch. Because Paley is confronted with a crafted mechanical watch which nature clearly could not produce on its But in doing so he concedes the existence of a designer. Even if it were accepted to be a sound argument (‘which it’s not’ he puts on the screen), it would only prove that the universe had a universe designer.”  So once again, going down this path, he concedes God, but now he’s playing ignorant on what we mean by “God”.  Well I’ve already defined that in number 6 above. This is the fallacy of Division. )  He should make up his mind. STUDY. 3. What are his straw man objections? Does a design imply a designer? Paley presented an argument which contains an analogy. Paley’s teleological argument is: just as the function and complexity of a watch implies a watch-maker, so likewise the function and complexity of the universe implies the existence of a universe-maker. The video blogger goes on to defines special pleading as “an argument in which the speaker deliberately creates an exception to their argument without justifying why. No amount of clear, logical reasoning will convince those who do not want to believe. Bryana_Polk2. Created by. Answer where the necessary increase in information comes to do things like change body types. If the video is a “joke” then why does it seem to represent the argument accurately according to Christian presentations and others’? Paley’s argument can be seen to be fairly weak due to a watch being man made where as a stone is something that was created in the christian God’s 7 days of creation. Flashcards. The best option is that the watch is product of intelligent design. Furthermore, Paley’s argument is rooted in similarities that he observes between a crafted machine and the natural world. The Watchmaker Argument: Fredrik Bendz summarizes a number of objections to Paley's argument—most relating to the fallacy of false analogy. it looks to the end purpose of things. William Paley’s Watch maker argument The above are not the words Paley use. (Argument from analogy), 3. An Intelligent agent to conceive of, and execute the entirety of the plan.  These components can be identified in the first three iterations of the teleological argument above, and I submit they are also implicit in Paley’s argument which include “purposeful design” and “contrivances.”  Indeed any object that requires forethought and planning to be produced is by definition an object that can only be produced by Intelligent Design. ( Log Out /  Paley talks about “contrivances” with clearly designed goals and purposes – which results in complexity. William Paley quotes Showing 1-5 of 5 “There is a principle which is a bar against all information, which is proof against all arguments, and which cannot fail to keep a man in everlasting ignorance - that principle is contempt prior to investigation.” Paley’s watch maker argument – an argument for the existence of God by the clearly apparent design in nature is one of the most powerful arguments for God’s existence. But natural selection reduces genetic information. 1. Just as a watch, with its inteligent design and complex function must have been created by an intelligent maker: a watchmaker, the universe, with all its complexity and greatness, must have been created by an intelligent and powerful creator. Here’s one that deals with a topic we’ve been discussing – specified complexity – and why Neo-Darwinism – and Dawkins’ “Mt. The Problem of Evil The argument makes use of an anaology as Paley compares a watch and the Earth/universe. It appears to be a logical argument – most people would agree that if they were to come across a watch they would assume it had a designer. Plato’s View of Justice and the Soul. So the incarnation of Jesus reveals God in a way no rational argument can.  So in summary, the argument doesn’t identify God, but neither does it preclude the Abrahamic God. Drops of Mercy – Key Point Based on the way the world is, God logically exists. 2. Our ignorance about a watch / universe does not mean we can’t draw some inferences about watch / universe, B. The only thing in Neo-Darwinism that can add information is mutations – and they are almost always negative in impact (video). supplying life giving water. However, modern science has shown that Hume's arguments were based upon ignorance, and were, in fact, wrong. Unit 5.4 Paley's Watch Argument. But Paley’s concepts of “purposeful design” [5] and “contrivances” [6] anticipate these concepts, and thus his argument is clearly a teleological one – not an argument based on analogy. As I noted above, complexity by itself does not require a designer. The universe resembles, is like the watch. I’ll point them out as we come across them. "Paley's argument is made with passionate sincerity and is informed by the best biological scholarship of the day, but it is wrong, gloriously and utterly wrong. How many universes are there? 3. “Every indicator of contrivance, every manifestation of design, which existed in the watch, exists in the works of nature; with the difference, on the side of nature, of being greater and more, and that in a degree which exceeds all computation. 9. Doesn’t Support Theism (Mistake @ 7:17) Because it is so clear, so easy to understand, so obvious, that it is a powerful argument for the existence of God. Again at this point, he’s not arguing against Paley, he’s arguing against the Judeo-Christian God.  At that point I need merely prove why there isn’t a multi-verse, since he’s already conceded a designer. Which is true – complexity in and off itself does not require a designer. Duane Caldwell | November 30,  2019 | Printer friendly version What conclusion would you draw if you found a watch on the road out in the heath (countryside)? Change ). By looking at his creation – since we can’t examine him directly. He identifies how we can infer a designer – “if the effect is both complex and specified”, Michael Behe’s “irreducible complexity” is also a teleological argument. 2. He then goes on to state that the argument says that “Complexity Requires a designer (1:18). 7. State Paley’s argument for God’s existence as clearly as possible. At this point I’m wondering if he’s even read Paley’s argument because Paley does not make this assertion. It’s on all that has to happen to bring it about – the planning, purpose, the assembling of parts in a particular order to achieve a specific end.  All these speak to design and purpose, not merely to just complexity. The universe is vastly more complex and gigantic than a watch. Traditionally – and certainly in Paley’s day –  there is only one universe, which would then imply one designer.  In these days when physicists and cosmologists claim the existence of a multi-verse (to try escape the inescapable conclusion of fine tuning in the universe) – he might want to claim many designers for a multi-verse – but that’s a separate argument. 2.) Rather  specified complexity – as Dembski put it, or “purposeful complexity”  as Paley put it which includes “contrivances” as he described, is what requires a designer. )  The argument speaks to the designer of the universe. This is critical to understand because this error is the foundation of many other errors in the video. Here he’s just spouting Evolutionary dogma while, I’ve written a number of articles on why Evolution is impossible. Ignores Natural Selection (Mistake @ 3:52) Telos means end (as in “endzone” in football) or purpose or goal. The analogy is used for what analogies are typically used for, to help the reader understand a deeper point, the analogy in and of itself is NOT the argument. And that is precisely what one must do to prevent the watchmaker argument from being completely self refuting.”. Paley bases his argument on something he knows for a fact: a watch needs a designer. ( Log Out /  keptics routinely give these two objections to the Paley’s argument: the analogy in and of itself is NOT the argument. He’s trying to refute the Judeo-Christian one, unique God. He identifies how we can infer a designer – “if the effect is both complex and specified”[2] furthermore he notes, we must rule out automatic or natural processes, so we must also establish contingency, or as he puts it, to infer design, “we must establish three things: contingency, complexity and specification. Thanks for another powerful refutation of evolutionist obfuscation. Behe explains the concept thus: “By irreducibly complex [emphasis his] I mean a single system composed of several well-matched, interacting parts that contribute to the basic function, wherein the removal of any one of the parts causes the system to effectively cease functioning. So what he shows here is he’s not trying to refute Paley’s argument. Addressing specific errors in Critiques of Paley. Watch William Paley's watchmaker analogy is basically a teleological argument. An overview and explanation of William Paley's watch analogy including some key quotes. Learn. Once again he’s missed the point.  As noted above, complexity is a component in identifying an intelligent designer, but it is not the only component. William Paley’s Watch maker argument The above are not the words Paley use. Most naturalists take for granted that Hume soundly defeated Paley's argument. Special Pleading / Self Refuting (Mistake @ 5:00) 4. Thus in identifying that the universe is designed, it is clear the universe must have a designer. Perhaps the most famous variant of this argument is the William Paley’s “watch” argument. Although William Paley published his watchmaker argument many years after David Hume's death, his design arguments must have been going around intellectual circles for many years prior, since David Hume did address them in his Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, which was published after his death. The various pieces and parts were fashioned to achieve a particular end or goal, and thus they have an intelligent goal maker. So clearly he doesn’t know God is complex by examination. Watch’s / universe’s imperfections do not exclude a designer, 3. Arrows neither aim themselves, nor shoot themselves. 6. PLAY. Therefore, the universe is (probably) a product of intelligent design (purpose). Thes… “…It completely ignores evolution by natural selection”, For evolution to be even remotely feasible, it must explain 1. The universe is vastly more complex and gigantic than a watch. This objection misses the point and thus fails because Paley’s argument is not an argument based on analogy. (Argument from analogy) 3. 1) Entities w, x, and y have attributes A, B and C 2) Entity z have attribute A and B 3) Therefore, entity z … I’ve written a number of articles on why Evolution is impossible. Also false. First, to think of God in those terms is to fall to the error of, The Universe/Creation was created out of nothing, William Paley’s Intelligent Contrivance, Kestrels and Cerevisiae, Mt Improbable and other impossible evolutionary dreams, Everyone should have one (The Watchmaker Analogy), https://phylogenous.wordpress.com/2011/03/10/william-paleys-intelligent-contrivance/, Distant Starlight Unlikely Solutions Part 1: Light In Transit, 15 Reasons:Why Evolution has never happened-Part 3, 15 Reasons:Why Evolution has never happened-Part 2, 15 Reasons: Why Evolution has never happened – Part 1, Knowledge of the Holy One Part 5: The Trinity, Knowledge of the Holy One Part 4: The Holy Spirit, Knowledge of the Holy One Part 3: God the Father, Knowledge of the Holy One Part 2: Jesus – The Holy One Denied, Knowledge of the Holy One Part 1: Jesus – the Holy One Revealed, Questions for Question Evolution Day 2020. At the end of this section he goes into the Problem of Evil – another theological problem not addressed by the Teleological Argument.  For more on the problem of evil, which is addressed by the Moral Argument (not the teleological argument), see here. Gravity. One need merely take a look at all the skeptics who try (unsuccessfully) to refute it. I was asked to defend the assessment  I made  of a critique of Paley‘s argument by YouTube channel “Rationality Rules”, in which I claimed the video was a joke because it misunderstood the argument and used straw man arguments and logical flaws.  Specifically I was asked to defend: 1.) In order for him to make that claim he must be able to state the origin of life, and demonstrate how nature did it from the beginning to end  – not with fuzzy evolutionary just-so stories, full of maybe’s and perhaps, and could be’s – but actual step by step scientific processes.  Failing that, it’s his belief, not science.  He’s just stating it’s true by fiat using the fallacy of an appeal to ignorance and hope you don’t know any better. William Paley The Watch and the Watchmaker [From Natural Theology, or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity Collected from the Appearances of Nature (1802), pp. William Dembski, Intelligent Design – the Bridge Between Science & Theology, Downer’s Grove, IL:IVP Academic, 1999, p.47 William Dembski’s “specified complexity” is a teleological argument. Therefore, watch / universe is product of intelligent design; it’s the best option, Outline of Hume’s Argument against Design, Nietzsche’s Madman and the Death of God, Sartre’s “Existentialism and Humanism”. Notice the main features of the arguments above: each instance requires: 1. forethought and planning, 2. Spell. On that see here or here. Though many objections are put forth, all fail spectacularly for usually the same small set of reasons: either because the skeptic doesn’t understand the argument and thus raises irrelevant objections – straw man arguments. Why all the effort? Hume does not 10. Basically, it was the watchmaker analogy that was used, “To support argument for the existence of God and for the intelligent design of the universe in both Christianity and Deism.” Click to see full answer. At most I will grant the argument does not identify the Abrahamic God – but that’s not the point of the argument. So right off the bat we see this attempt to debunk Paley’s does not represent the argument accurately according to Christian presentations as elaborated above. It is modern firstly because it regards the world in mechanistic terms i.e. The whole point of his little video is to prove that the watchmaker doesn’t imply a designer. The “watchmaker analogy” that outlines the argument with regard to timepiece dates back to Cicero. What is William Paley's argument for design. William Paley begins his “Argument from Design” by enumerating key differences between two obviously dissimilar objects—a stone and a watch. That is the essence of the argument of Michael Ruse to Ben Stein in “Expelled no Intelligence Allowed” – that life may have developed into the needed complexity on the back of crystals (1 minute video).  What Ruse and many others skeptics miss, is that the identification of design is contingent not only on just complexity, put as Dembski put it “specified complexity” [emphasis mine] or as Paley put it “purposeful design”. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Ex Nihilo  (Mistake @ 6:55) 2. First:  problems in the design does not negate the fact that we can still detect design.  If a house is half burned down, we can still detect it was once a house. And we know this from all the genetic operations studies that we have.”, The only thing in Neo-Darwinism that can add information is mutations – and they are almost, He further claims “We know for a fact that nature can, does and has produced remarkably complex organisms without a conscious and intelligent behind them.”(4:14) We know no such thing. But Paley’s concepts of “purposeful design”[5] and  “contrivances”[6] anticipate these concepts, and thus his argument is clearly a teleological one – not an argument based on analogy. One of the most famous proponents of the teleological argument for the existence of God is the 18th-century philosopher, William Paley. Thus they do not help in the selecting for survival. So why does he think God is complex? His argument played a prominent role in natural theology.
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